NYT: ‘A Discredited Supreme Court Ruling That Still, Technically, Stands’

By Adam Liptak, The New York Times, Jan. 27, 2014 — The Supreme Court’s 1944 decision in Korematsu v. United States was a disaster. In endorsing an executive order that required 110,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry to be removed from their homes and confined in detention camps, the court relied on wartime hysteria streaked with racism, sullying its reputation and damaging the constitutional principles it was meant to uphold.

Justice Antonin Scalia has ranked Korematsu alongside Dred Scott, the 1857 decision that black slaves were property and not citizens, as among the court’s most shameful blunders.

Justice Stephen G. Breyer has written that Korematsu has lost all potency as precedent. “The decision has been so thoroughly discredited,” he wrote in a recent book, “that it is hard to conceive of any future court referring to it favorably or relying on it.”

But Korematsu has never been overruled.

Read the full article:
http://nyti.ms/1f6Ol84

SCOTUS

SCOTUSblog: ‘A plea to cast aside Korematsu’

This post was written by Lyle Denniston of SCOTUSblog and originally published on January 16, 2014. It is reposted here in accordance with that publication’s Creative Commons license.

Lawyers who worked for years — ultimately successfully — to clear the names of U.S. citizens of Japanese ancestry who were convicted of violating government detention policy during World War II are trying to persuade the Obama administration to join in wiping off the books the Supreme Court rulings of that time, upholding those detentions.  The most famous of those rulings – often reviled – was the 1944 decision in Korematsu v. United States.

The lawyers did so in a letter last week to U.S. Solicitor General Donald B. Verrilli, Jr., attempting to shape the government’s response to a new Supreme Court appeal that attacks the Korematsu decision.  They want the government to formally repudiate that precedent, and tell the Court that it is no part of the justification today for detention of U.S. citizens during the war on terrorism.

The new case is Hedges v. Obama (docket 13-758), an attempt to revive a constitutional challenge to Congress’s recent support of presidential power to detain suspected terrorists.

The Hedges case was turned aside by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit last July, but only on the basis that the challengers to the detention policy — journalists, authors, and political activists –  were found to have no right to sue because they could not show that they were actually at risk of being targeted by the policy.  The Circuit Court did not rule on the constitutionality of the 2011 law spelling out anew the power of the president to order the capture and possibly long-term confinement of potential terrorists.

There is a lively debate in legal circles whether that provision added to presidential power to detain, or simply reaffirmed the power given to the president after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.  Unless the federal courts agree to resolve the meaning of the 2011 provision, the actual extent of that authority will remain unclear, but to be decided by the White House and Congress..

While Congress was debating that measure, a controversy arose over how far it would go, if at all, to permit the detention without trial of U.S. citizens captured inside the U.S.  In a compromise effort to resolve that dispute, Congress included a statement that now seems ambiguous about what was intended.   In the Hedges case, the claim is that the statement can be read to rely upon the Korematsu decision as support for such detentions — something that those challengers want to have clearly refuted.

Here is the language of the compromise provision: “Authorities. — Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect existing law or authorities relating to the detention of United States citizens, lawful resident aliens of the United States, or any other persons who are captured or arrested in the United States.”

What concerns the challengers in the Hedges case, and the lawyers who wrote to the Solicitor General, is the phrase “existing law or authorities.”  In the petition in the Supreme Court seeking review of the Second Circuit’s decision, this was included as one of the questions at issue: “To the extent that the Second Circuit opinion holds that Koremasu is among the ‘existing law and authorities’…that relate to military detention of citizens and legal residents, should Korematsu be overruled?”

That question is the focus of the letter, dated last Friday, to Solicitor General Verrilli by eleven attorneys who note that they had represented Fred Korematsu, Gordon Hirabayashi, and Minoru Yasui in successful efforts in lower federal courts to nullify their convictions for violating military curfew and exclusion orders “that led to the incarceration and indefinite detention of more than 110,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry.”

The letter said that, in the Hedges case, “the Supreme Court now has the opportunity to correct and formally overrule its decisions in the internment cases.”  The decisions in those cases, the attorneys wrote, “could be read as among the ‘authorities’” referred to in the new 2011 detention law.

Noting that Verrilli’s office was now preparing a response to the Hedges petition, the letter asked him to take one of two steps: ask the Court formally to overrule the internment decisions, or, as an alternative, to “make clear” that the federal government “does not consider the internment decisions as valid precedent for governmental or military detention of individuals or groups without due process of law, and as not among any ‘authorities’ to which [the new law] refers.”

Under the current schedule for the Hedges case, the government’s response is due by February 2 4. (The government this week received an extension of time to file that document.)  In the Second Circuit, the government relied heavily upon an argument that the challengers did not have “standing” to sue because they were not threatened by the new law, and that, in any event, the law did not add any new detention authority.

Those are likely to be the main arguments that Verrilli will make when the response is filed.  He presumably has the option, in discussing what the new provision means, to discuss what the disputed phrase conveys about prior detention precedents.

Citation: Lyle Denniston, A plea to cast aside Korematsu, SCOTUSblog (Jan. 16, 2014, 11:13 PM), http://www.scotusblog.com/2014/01/a-plea-to-cast-aside-korematsu/

NDAA Lawsuit Plaintiffs Ask Supreme Court to Review Case

SCOTUSThe plaintiffs in the Hedges v. Obama lawsuit are asking the U.S. Supreme Court to review their case and strike down a section of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) that permits the military to seize U.S. citizens, strip them of due process and hold them indefinitely in military facilities.

Provisions of the 2013 National Defense Authorization Act, or NDAA, authorizes the federal government to repeat the forced incarceration in the early 1940s of 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants who spent years in prisons without notice of charges, the right to an attorney, or the right to a trial.

A group of journalists and activists – including Chris Hedges, Daniel Ellsberg, Noam Chomsky, and Jennifer “Tangerine” Bolen – last year filed a lawsuit, Hedges v. Obama, challenging the indefinite detention provisions of the NDAA as unconstitutional.

On Dec. 17th, 2012, the families of Fred Korematsu, Minoru Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi filed an amicus brief in the Hedges case with in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The brief describes a terrifying parallel to the incarceration of Americans of Japanese ancestry during World War II.

Under the pretense of national security, the NDAA essentially repeats the decisions in the discredited World War II cases of Korematsu, Hirabayashi, and Yasui, allowing the government to imprison people without any due process rights for an indefinite time.

The Hedges petition to the Supreme Court (download PDF) acknowledges the Korematsu-Yasui-Hirabayashi amicus brief:

Special thanks to Professor Lorraine K. Bannai and the Korematsu Center For Law and Equality at Seattle University School of Law. Additional thanks to Professor Eric Yamamoto, the Fred T. Korematsu Professor of Law at the University of Hawaii School of Law and to Anjana Malhotra.

These important authors submitted an amicus brief on behalf of descendants of World War II detainees: Karen and Ken Korematsu, Holly, Iris and Laurel Dee Yasui, Jay Hirabayashi, Sharon Mitsu Yen and Marion Setsu Oldenberg.

Join the plaintiffs’ page on Facebook for the latest updates on this case.

California Gov. Signs Anti-NDAA Bill

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Art Persyko of the SF 99% Coalition Civil Liberties Committee let us know that California Governor Jerry Brown has signed AB351, a law banning all cooperation with the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) or any other federal attempts to indefinitely detain people.

“California’s move against indefinite detention powers … marks a continuing trend among individual states,” reported RT.com. “Last year, Virginia signed a bill into law prohibiting state cooperation with federal government attempts at indefinite detention. The state of Alaska then passed a similar bill.”

SF Supervisors Pass Resolution Opposing NDAA

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The San Francisco Board of Supervisors unanimously approved today a resolution opposing the indefinite detention provisions of the NDAA.

The resolution “Opposing the Indefinite Detention Provisions of the National Defense Authorization Act” was introduced by David Chiu, President of the Board, and sponsored by Supervisors Avalos, Breed, Campos, Kim and Mar.

Supervisor Chiu introduced the resolution after learning that the children of Fred Korematsu, Min Yasui, amd Gordon Hirabayashi filed an amicus brief in the Hedges lawsuit against the NDAA.

Amicus Brief Co-Author Lori Bannai on HuffPost Live

Bannai_HuffPost_LiveLorraine Bannai, Director of the Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality at Seattle University School of Law, appeared on a Feb. 19, 2013, segment of HuffPost Live focusing on the Japanese American incarceration and how the NDAA risks repeating history by allowing the government to indefinitely detain American citizens and residents without due process.

Lori was one of the principal authors in the amicus brief filed by the children of families of Fred Korematsu, Minoru Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi in Hedges v. Obama, which challenges the constitutionality of the indefinite detention provisions of NDAA.

She was joined by Hiroshi Kashiwagi of San Francisco, who was incarcerated in the Tule Lake Camp; Prof. Bill Ong Hing, a University of San Francisco School of Law Professor; and Carl Mayer of Princeton, N.J., attorney for the plaintiffs in Hedges v. Obama.

Watch the video here.

Feb. 20 Panel at USF on Japanese American Incarceration

The Asian Pacific American Studies department at the University of San Francisco (USF) will host a panel discussion about the incarceration of 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II on Weds., Feb. 20 at 5 p.m.

The Lockups, Land Grabs and Liberation: Asian Pacific Americans and US Civil Rights discussion is free, open to the public, and will be held at Fromm Hall on USF’s main campus. USF School of Law Professor Bill Ong Hing will moderate the discussion featuring panelists Karen Korematsu, Karen Kai, Robert Rusky, and Don Tamaki.

“The February 20 panel discussion aims at calling attention to the ways that those directly affected by relocation and internment not only experienced tremendous injustice, but also have since worked to defend all Americans’ civil rights, and to protect other citizens from being discriminated against because of race,” said USF Professor Bill Ong Hing.

The panel takes place the day after the national “Day of Remembrance” which symbolically marks the anniversary of the signing of Executive Order 9066, a presidential mandate that led to the unlawful forced removal, and unconstitutional mass incarceration of 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II. The order was belatedly reversed by the passage of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. “Recalling the sad events and injustice of February 1942 are necessary to remember the need to protect civil rights.,” said Professor Hing.

The panel presents a unique opportunity to review the Supreme Court case Korematsu v. United States of 1944, which upheld President Franklin Roosevelt’s executive order. Panelist Karen Korematsu, the daughter of the case’s Fred Korematsu, will speak about her father’s conviction for refusing to leave his San Leandro, Calif. home in 1942.

The panel also will discuss their participation in the case of Soko Bukai v. YWCA, which combined the issues of internment and alien land laws that barred Japanese Americans from owning land in California. “Helping to highlight the ways the Asian American community has contributed to defending and safeguarding U.S. civil rights and racial equality,” said Hing.

Fromm Hall is located behind St. Ignatius Church along Parker Avenue (at McAllister). All are welcomed to attend.

Source: USF

Video: The Stream TV Show with Karen Korematsu

Karen Korematsu appeared on the Feb. 18, 2013, broadcast of The Stream television show on Al Jazeera English. Karen talked about the Japanese American incarceration, Fred Korematsu’s legacy, and how the NDAA risks repeating our country’s past wrong of incarcerating Japanese Americans during World War II without due process. She was joined on the show by Carl Mayer, the attorney for the plaintiffs in Hedges v. Obama, and Mary Murakami, who as a child was incarcerated in the Topaz Camp.

SF Supervisor David Chiu Introduces Resolution Opposing Federal Law on Indefinite Detention

supervisor david chiu san franciscoDavid Chiu, President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, today introduced a resolution at the Board of Supervisors opposing provisions of a federal law that allows the military to arrest and detain American citizens on U.S. soil without a warrant or due process.

Read coverage on the San Francisco Chronicle websiteRead Karen Korematsu’s remarks as prepared for delivery at today’s press conference.

Supervisor Chiu introduces the measure one week before Feb. 19th, the 71st anniversary of President Franklin Roosevelt’s signing of an executive order allowing the government to incarcerate Americans of Japanese descent during World War II.

“By standing by and allowing the NDAA’s indefinite detention provisions to remain law of the land, we risk repeating our history of incarcerating without due process Japanese Americans during World War II,” said Chiu. “I suspect Fred Korematsu, Minoru Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi would be livid about this.”

Supervisors John Avalos, London Breed, David Campos, Jane Kim and Eric Mar are co-sponsoring the resolution, which is endorsed by the Coalition for Safe San Francisco and the Bill of Rights Defense Committee.

Provisions of the 2013 National Defense Authorization Act, or NDAA, authorizes the federal government to repeat the forced incarceration in the early 1940s of 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants who spent years in prisons without notice of charges, the right to an attorney, or the right to a trial.

A group of journalists and activists – including Chris Hedges, Daniel Ellsberg, Noam Chomsky, and Jennifer “Tangerine” Bolen – last year filed a lawsuit, Hedges v. Obama, challenging the indefinite detention provisions of the NDAA as unconstitutional.

On Dec. 17th, 2012, the families of Fred Korematsu, Minoru Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi filed an amicus brief in the Hedges case with in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The brief describes a terrifying parallel to the incarceration of Americans of Japanese ancestry during World War II.

Under the pretense of national security, the NDAA essentially repeats the decisions in the discredited World War II cases of Korematsu, Hirabayashi, and Yasui, allowing the government to imprison people without any due process rights for an indefinite time.

Korematsu Day 2013 to Honor 16 Civil Rights Heroes

Korematsu Day 2013 - posterThe Fred T. Korematsu Institute for Civil Rights and Education is excited to celebrate Korematsu Day 2013 (http://FredKorematsuDayHeroes.org) by honoring 16 American civil rights heroes who’ve been long overlooked (see list below). This will be a historic gathering of civil rights heroes and the descendants of heroes who have passed on.

The event also features celebrity emcee DANNY GLOVER, actor, community activist and humanitarian, as well as a special performance by American Idol star and international recording artist JASMINE TRIAS.

WHEN: Sunday, January 27, 2013. 1:00pm VIP reception with honorees, 2:30-4:30pm program
WHERE: Herbst Theatre, 401 Van Ness Ave. at McAllister, San Francisco, CA 94102
TICKETS: Available for purchase at: http://bit.ly/kdayheroestix
$100 VIP reception with honorees + program admission
$25 program general admission
$10 senior (65+)/student/youth (under 18) admission

If you are a Filipino WWII veteran, Japanese American WWII veteran, Internment Dissenter, or Dollar Store Striker wishing to attend, please call us at 415-848-7737 to request complimentary tickets or email info@korematsuinstitute.org.

HONOREES:

1. FRED KOREMATSU: Plaintiff who challenged the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans in the US Supreme Court. Karen Korematsu will represent her father at the event.

2. GRACE LEE BOGGS: Chinese American grassroots activist for pan-ethnic social justice movements. Ms. Boggs is unable to attend the event.

3. MITSUYE ENDO: Plaintiff who challenged the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans in the US Supreme Court. Wayne Tsutsumi and Wendy Weiner will represent their mother at the event.

4. FILIPINO WWII VETERANOS: Filipino soldiers who fought for the US against Japanese forces during WWII but were later denied US military benefits. Veterano Alberto Saldajeno will represent this honoree group at the event.

5. GORDON HIRABAYASHI: Plaintiff who challenged the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans in the US Supreme Court. Jay Hirabayashi will represent his father at the event.

6. INTERNMENT DISSENTERS: “No Nos,” draft resisters and renunciants who challenged the WWII incarceration and mistreatment of Japanese Americans. “No-No” Hiroshi Kashiwagi will represent this honoree group at the event.

7. LARRY ITLIONG: Filipino American organizer and coalition builder in California’s farm labor movement. Johnny Itliong will represent his father at the event.

8. JAPANESE AMERICAN WWII VETERANS: Soldiers who fought bravely in segregated WWII military units in the face of racism at home. MIS veteran Asa Hanamoto will represent this honoree group at the event.

9. YURI KOCHIYAMA: Japanese American grassroots activist for pan-ethnic social justice movements. Audee Kochiyama-Holman will represent her mother at the event.

10. QUEEN LILI‘UOKALANI: Last reigning monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii and advocate for Hawaiian sovereignty. The Queen’s descendants will not be attending the event.

11. DOLLAR STORE STRIKERS: Women labor activists who launched one of the longest-running strikes in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Mervyn Lee, son of striker Sue Ko Lee, will represent this honoree group at the event.

12. MAMIE TAPE: Chinese American child plaintiff in landmark case reinforcing equal access to education. Alisa Kim will represent her aunt at the event.

13. BHAGAT SINGH THIND: Sikh American plaintiff in US Supreme Court case examining race-based citizenship. David Bhagat Thind will represent his father at the event.

14. PHILIP VERA CRUZ: Filipino American founding member of the United Farm Workers and defender of workers’ rights. Fernando Gapasin will represent his uncle at the event.

15. WONG KIM ARK: Chinese American plaintiff in US Supreme Court case affirming birthright citizenship. Gary Wong will represent his grandfather at the event.

16. MIN YASUI: Plaintiff who challenged the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans in the US Supreme Court. Serena Hawkins-Schletzbaum and Chani Hawkins-Walker will represent their grandfather at the event.

EVENT FUNDERS:

Anonymous Foundation
Cotchett, Pitre & McCarthy, LLP
Wells Fargo Foundation
Japanese American Citizens League – San Francisco Chapter
Asian Pacific Islander American Public Affairs Association (APAPA)

MEDIA CO-SPONSORS:

8Asians
Angry Asian Man
APEX Express KPFA 94.1FM
AsianWeek Foundation
Diya TV
Japanese City
KAXT Channel 1
New American Media
Nichi Bei Weekly
Philippine News
Radio Campesina
Rafu Shimpo

COMMUNITY CO-SPONSORS:

Asian American Curriculum Project (AACP)
Asian Americans for Community Outreach (AACO)
Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund
Asian Business League – San Francisco (ABL-SF)
American Legion Cathay Post No. 384
API Circle
Asian Law Alliance
Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance, AFL-CIO, Alameda Chapter (APALA)
Asian Pacific Islander American Public Affairs Association
Burmese Youth Association (BYA)
Cameron House
Center for Asian American Media (CAAM)
Cesar Chavez Foundation
Chinese American Heroes
Chinese Historical Society of America (CHSA)
Chinese Progressive Association (CPA)
Coalition of Asian American Government Employees (CAAGE)
Ella Baker Center for Human Rights
Filipina Women’s Network (FWN)
Filipino Advocates for Justice
Filipino American Arts Exposition
Filipino Bar Association of Northern California
Fred T. Korematsu Elementary School at Mace Ranch
Friends of Roots
Golden Gate University Law School – Asian Pacific American Law Students Association
Hawaii Chamber of Commerce of Northern California
Japanese American Citizens League – San Francisco Chapter
Japanese American Citizens League – Watsonville-Santa Cruz Chapter
Japanese Community Youth Council (JCYC)
Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Northern California (JCCCNC)
Kimochi, Inc.
Korean American Bar Association of Northern California
Laotian American National Alliance (LANA)
Manilatown Heritage Foundation
Miss Asian America Pageant
Nakayoshi Young Professionals
Oakland Asian Cultural Center (OACC)
OCA-East Bay
OCA-San Francisco
OCA-San Mateo
Pacific Islander Community Partnership
Public Allies
RepeatingHistory.org
Richmond Area Multi-Services, Inc. (RAMS)
Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development
Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund
Sikh Coalition
South Asian Bar Association of Northern California
South East Asian Cultural Heritage & Music Performing Arts
Taiwanese American Citizens League – Leading Youth Forward
Taiwanese American Professionals – San Francisco (TAP-SF)
Tule Lake Committee
UC Hastings Asian Pacific American Law Students Association
Voice of Witness